I was interested in learning that banks can no longer pay for debit card purchases with insufficient funds and then charge outrageous NSF fees.
I'd like to see that in a statute citation please.
Is there any recourse to recover any of the money that I lost last year?
You bought stuff that you couldn't pay for.
You don't get to be immune from the consequences.
It was probably in your cardholder agreement that the bank would advance the money and then charge you fees for it.
"Telling" the bank not to do was a waste of time because it didn't change your contract.
The solution was to either make sure you had money in the bank to cover your purchases or just not make the purchases.