Check Pacer to determine whether he has really filed BK or not. Pacer is the Federal Court's system for listing cases.
If he has, unpaid wages generally are a priority claim in BK as compared to the claims of other creditors (although you may not get everything that you are owed). You probably have to file somethng with the court.
Most of the time, when people file for Bankruptcy, you do get a notice in the mail if you are one of the listed creditors.
Of course, if he is flat broke, you may not get anything
I doubt that you can hold the recruiter liable.
If you can't verify that he filed, see if the State of Washington's Labor Dept can help you regarding your unpaid wages claim.