It would have been smarter to take your vacation and then give your termination notice well after you got back. Employers don't like being jerked around, and when you schedule a vacation knowing or planning that you'll quit as of when that vacation is over without any notice, surely you can see how they'd be peeved.
You're free to contact the state department of labor folks and file a wage claim. Problem may be they may pretend that you called in to quit last week. Do you have a copy of your vacation request, by chance?
If all else fails, you're free to sue them in small claims.
But remember that you have to mention this place on your resume, and they may be eager to tell all future prospective employers that you quit without any notice.