Assuming your employer doesn't impose a use-or-lose policy on vacation, then you can eventually make a wage claim for the vacation pay. I wouldn't jump the gun on that right away given the circumstances, however. You don't want to use up your vacation pay only to be called back and have to work for the rest of the year without any paid time off. :)
A new job would have no effect on whether they have to pay you for accrued but unused vacation.
Note, however, that I don't imagine you've accrued two weeks of vacation already this year. Most employers don't work that way (they may "bank" you the total hours at the beginning of the year, but that doesn't automatically mean you've earned all of them). Sounds like they do definitely owe you the week from last year though.