Also: "Maintenance, Repair and Replacement of Common Areas and Facilities. The HOA shall be responsible for the proper maintenance, repair and replacement of the common areas and facilites of the condominium, excluding exclusive common areas
I think these "exclusive common areas" are the "limited common areas" in the master deed. It would be less confusing if the two documents had standardized on one or the other terminology, but I think this is the only reasonable way to interpret it.
So if this wording is all there is, it seems you are responsible for the repairs to your plumbing, and your neighbors are responsible for the repairs to their ceilings etc. unless the damage was caused by your negligence. Since you now know that taking a shower in this bathroom causes water damage to your neighbor's property, it would be negligent for you to use that shower before the leak has been fixed, and you'd be responsible to pay for any damage caused by your continued use of that shower. But the water damage that occurred before you knew there was a problem would not be your responsibility to pay for, unless you did something like install your own pipes incompetently - or unless there is wording in your HOA documents that makes you responsible for damage to other units caused by failure of your pipes regardless why they failed.
You are right that the last paragraph does not make it clear who is responsible for exterior maintenance, roof maintenance, or exterior painting.
BTW, if you have unit-owner's insurance, you should dig out and read your policy and follow the instructions to properly inform your insurer of this situation. There's a possibility you might be sued and have to claim under your liability protection.