"should they have contacted me and/or others who are also qualified about the newly opened position?"
Only if you are in a union that requires they contact you and the others who are qualified as part of a CBA that calls for it or you had a contract that stipulated in the recall that stated so. If not then no, they were not required to notify you or anyone else.
"if I apply and don't get the position, could I take legal action?"
Only if you can prove that they used an illegal criteria in denying you the job.
"should I still file the EEOC claim despite this open position?"
You would have to prove they laid you off BECAUSE you were female. Laying you off despite the fact that others were less qualilfed is not illegal discrimination.
"That's just my opinion, then again I might be wrong." Dennis Miller